Archive for “May, 2021”

‘A time to say thanks’ Recognising the contribution of SNAP Cymru volunteers to communities during coronavirus

Volunteers’ Week 2021 is almost here!

Volunteers’ Week takes place between 1-7 June every year and is a time for us all to recognise and thank volunteers. During an exceptionally difficult year, people from all walks of life across Wales have taken the time to volunteer and made a huge difference to people and their communities – just as they do every year. 

We’d like to take this time to recognise our very own SNAP Cymru volunteers that helped during the last 12 months and to thank those who usually volunteer but have not been able to because of the pandemic. 

Volunteers are always active at the heart of every Welsh community and certainly the heart of our SNAP Cymru team.  The coronavirus pandemic has rightly raised the profile of volunteering and more people than ever are aware of the immense contribution being made every single day by the volunteers.  That is why, on this 37th  annual #VolunteersWeek and during the the #MonthofCommunity, it’s time to say:  thank you volunteers! 

Of course SNAP Cymru has always recognised the significant benefit our own volunteers bring to children, families and communities across Wales. Telling our volunteers stories is a great way for us to recognise and thank them for all the fantastic things they’ve been doing and to demonstrate the different ways in which our volunteers share their different skills with us.

Lindsay’s Story

‘A family affair’

“I have been a supporter of SNAP Cymru since 1986, and became a volunteer on the National Executive Committee in 1996. As a teacher, SNAP validated my position with parents, so I encouraged every parent to contact them. In that way, the advice that I gave them was validated and gave the parents confidence in what the Local Authority was saying to them.

As a parent three of my four children had additional needs and SNAP Cymru was always there to support me.  It was a place where I could check that my emotions were not getting the better of my judgement.

When I retired in 2012 and started volunteering every day, I saw the charity through some very difficult financial times. The Trustees worked closely with the senior Team making difficult decisions to keep as many front-line hours of parental support as possible with the leadership accepting more and more business responsibilities and staff taking on more admin.  It was in 2014 that we lost our business manager leaving a gap in producing payroll that month!  My son, George, one of the children who had received help from SNAP Cymru, stepped in.  He learned the system and volunteered two days a month to support the team to produce payroll.

I then had to have operations and treatment for cancer, and George volunteered every day to cover the role I had taken on.  From there he obtained a trainee business administrator role, through the Jobs Growth Wales scheme, working directly with the Chief Executive, and went on to become SNAP’s business administrator.  When I returned to the office, I was volunteering for him!

When he moved jobs, he became a Trustee and took on the role of Treasurer where he continues to support the charity and look after its future.

SNAP Cymru is a place we both feel happy belonging to.”

Valdis’s Story

“Six years ago, I come to Wales from Latvia knowing little English and feeling hopeful but a bit scared of this new life.  I came to live with a family where SNAP Cymru was at the heart of their family life and quickly began to do small jobs for the charity that did not need much conversation.

When Covid overtook the country, I became part of the Pen y Cymoedd Wind Farm Project which provided a grant to customise learning and leisure activities for families in that area.  Working from home with equipment provided by the grant I researched free printable materials on a range of subjects from football clubs to Fireman Sam and found information and activities to suit ages 1-35 years! I was putting in 4 hours a day five days a week and the project ran for 4 months.  The feedback we got was fabulous and the research really improved my English.  I am currently volunteering a day a week at our SNAP Cymru warehouse in Hengoed and enjoying meeting customers,  I have found a lovely group of friends through volunteering for SNAP and gained skills and confidence

Volunteers are a major asset to SNAP Cymru

By contributing time, energy and talent, all our volunteers across Wales provide new skills and complement the work of our team. We would not manage the high demand for our services without the support of our amazing volunteers. We are extremely proud of them and can’t thank them enough for all their hard work.

Whatever their Volunteering role their ‘Gift of Time’ is helping toward making a difference to children, young people and families across Wales.

Something for everyone

Everyone’s reason for volunteering is unique, from meeting people to learning new skills and making a difference. Our volunteers come from all backgrounds and we have a range of roles to suit everyone.

If you’re interested in volunteering with us please complete and submit the application form, or for more information please see our volunteering page

Additional Learning Needs Update

Changes to the Additional Learning Needs (ALN) system reached a new milestone this spring when the ALN Code and Regulations were passed by the Senedd on 23 March. Along with the ALN Act 2018, the code and regulations will create the new statutory (legal) ALN system in Wales.

From September 2021 the ALN system will come into force over a three-year phased implementation period.

To prepare for this, 4 commencement orders have been published which bring into force the elements of the new law which will apply from September the 1st 2021.

Who will the new system apply to from September?

Children of compulsory school age (5 – 16) and below who have special educational provision via school action or school action plus and who attend maintained schools in:

  • Nursery Years 1 and 2 and 
  • Year 1
  • Year 3
  • Year 5
  • Year 7
  • Year 10);
  • Children who are detained;
  • All children before Sept 1st regardless of the year group or setting – (including EOTAS, an independent school or who are electively home educated) who are new to ALN
  • Who are dual registered
  • Who are ‘Looked After’


“Right to ask to transfer to new law”

In addition, any child in any year group who on 1 September 2021 who has identified special educational needs, or the child’s parent, can make a request to the appropriate person that the new law applies to that child.   The school or LA must reply within 10 days.

The Welsh Government anticipates that the same number of children or young people in schools will have ALN as SEN at present, but that the new term will reduce stigma and mark a clear break from the old system.   

The implementation is not an opportunity to ‘streamline and reduce’ the provision currently made for children

Children and parents will receive a notice of transfer to the new system. Schools will issue the notice which will trigger the new system for a child. Schools may also send a notice to say the child’s needs can be met within the school based provision and that they will not be transferring to the new system. Many parents are beginning to have these conversations with their schools, but formal notification will be sent from Sept 1st onwards or at natural review points throughout the year.

What are the key questions to ask when thinking about whether a child or young person has ALN?

  1. Do they have a learning difficulty or disability?
  • Does the child or young person have a learning difficulty or disability (whether the learning difficulty or disability arises from a medical condition or otherwise) which calls for additional learning provision.
  • A significantly greater difficulty in learning than the majority of others of the same age, or
  • Does the child or young person have a disability for the purposes of the Equality Act 2010 which prevents or hinders him or her from making use of facilities for education or training of a kind generally provided for others of the same age in mainstream maintained schools or mainstream institutions in the further education sector

2. Does that learning difficulty or disability call for additional learning provision (ALP) to be made?

  • For a child aged three or over, ALP means educational or training provision that is ‘additional to, or different from‘, that made generally for others of the same age range. (Educational provision generally made available in mainstream maintained schools could be for example, ‘catch-up provision or differentiated teaching strategies’ more generally- these would not be considered ALP)

These decisions should be made collaboratively with parents.  If the school decides that the child or young person does have additional learning needs, or where it has been directed to by the LA, it must prepare and maintain an individual development plan (IDP). In addition, it must secure the ALP described in the IDP.

If a parent disagrees with the decision, they should explain to the school why they disagree. If this can’t be resolved the parents can request that a school decision is reconsidered by the local authority. Impartial information advice and support will be made available for children, young people and parents.

Children & young people not included from September 1st

The following young people and children (from the year groups above) are not included in the current orders and will not be included in the new system from September 1st  2021

  • A young person with additional learning needs who is over compulsory school age, or a young person who has identified special educational needs and the local authority is assessing
  • Any child who has special educational needs and the a local authority is currently undertaking a Statutory Assessment
  • Where a local authority decides not to make a statement following an assessment or writes a Note in Lieu or offers an IDP and the parent and young person has a right of appeal (time limits apply)
  • Where a local authority has decided to cease to maintain a statement and the parent and young person has a right of appeal
  • Where an appeal to the Tribunal has been brought but not finally decided;
  • Where the tribunal has ordered that the local authority make and maintain a statement

All other pupils with additional learning needs with existing non-statutory plans IEP’s and Statements will transfer over the following two years. However, no new request for Statutory Assessment will be accepted, new requests will be made under the new ALN system. Details of how this will be confirmed by the WG over the next month.

The Welsh Government will be publishing a new implementation guide in June or July 2021, which will set out in detail the arrangements for the first year of implementation and provide an overview of the arrangements for the second and third years.  Information for parents is also being developed.

You can find out more about the ALN transformation program and guidance on the current SEN system here including a frequently asked questions and ALN transformation programme guide.

If you are concerned about any aspect of the implementation to the new system do discuss this with your school.

Information, advice and support

The Additional Learning Needs Act 2018 says local authorities must provide impartial information, advice and support about additional learning needs for children, young people and parents/carers. In most areas of Wales, SNAP Cymru will continue to provide impartial information and support.

Our main aims are to give you:

  • the skills to confidently share your views, make decisions and develop good relationships with professionals
  • the knowledge you need to understand your situation and take whatever action you need
  • We do that by giving you clear and straightforward information about your options and refer you to further specialist support where required

Disagreement Resolution / Mediation

Sometimes it is difficult to reach an agreement. Local authorities must provide access to , Independent Disagreement Resolution.

This service is provided by SNAP Cymru in all areas of Wales.  The service can help young people, parents, schools, and the local education authority when there is a dispute about ALN decisions and ALN provision.

An experienced mediator will meet with parents and school or local education authority staff. The mediator does not take sides but will listen and find out what has been happening. The aim is to find a workable solution that everyone can agree with.

Using the service is completely voluntary and all parties need to agree to participate; no one has to use it if they do not want to. The service provides a positive opportunity for communication which is voluntary, confidential and free.

Young people or parents who want to know more about this service can speak to SNAP Cymru on 0808 801 0608 or email: or for referral and more information on: DRS  –  

You can contact SNAP Cymru through our helpline on 0808 801 0608 or by completing the ALN enquiry form on the contact page of this website.

Immigration Advice Service : Supporting Asylum Seeking Children

SNAP Cymru aims to support children and young people who encounter barriers to their education – all children deserve to reach their full potential! Our SNAP team can offer free and independent information and advice, as well as advocacy and training. Our services are open to any child/young person experiencing barriers to their learning (and any adult supporting them), and can be accessed via our helpline (0808 801 0608), or online enquiry form (Contact – SNAP Cymru).

We are proud to be working in partnership with the Immigration Advice Service – the following article is a guest piece written by Aileen Bowe (Writer and Correspondent for the Immigration Advice Service). 

Much more is needed : Educational Opportunities for unaccompanied asylum-seeking children

Overview of the situation

When an unaccompanied asylum-seeking child (UASC) arrives in the UK, they enter a system that ostensibly has been designed to provide quality care and treat them in the same way as UK-born children. However, this is not always the case. Reports frequently show poorer outcomes for unaccompanied asylum-seeking children.

One of the ways that this is visible is in the educational journey for children with these backgrounds. As we outline in more detail in this article, while motivation can be very high for asylum-seeking children at primary and secondary level, this can then fall dramatically when it comes to moving to third level education as a result of systemic obstacles placed in the way of further progression.


What happens when UASC arrive in the UK?

Worldwide, there are 13 million child refugees. Since 2016, over 9,000 unaccompanied children have requested asylum in the UK. In the year ending March 2020, there were 2,205 grants of leave made in the UK to unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (including grants of asylum, humanitarian protection, discretionary leave, UASC leave and other grants).

When a UASC arrives in the UK, they will either submit an asylum claim at their port of entry or at the national intake unit in Croydon. Local authorities are responsible for the welfare of children who are not accompanied by parents or guardians. The child may be transferred out of the care of the first council in which they are placed in if there is insufficient capacity to provide care.


Key considerations for unaccompanied child asylum seekers

It is widely accepted that unaccompanied refugee or asylum-seeking children have higher risks of developing mental health problems. As well as this, they are more likely to have experienced a number of adverse childhood events or traumatic experiences, including the death of parents or close family members, exposure to violence, physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, and severe deprivation of basic needs.

Significant” numbers of vulnerable young people have regularly been reported missing by authorities, and in some cases, even end up being trafficked or subject to further abuse. In 2020, following the onset of the pandemic, some forms of legislation designed to protect vulnerable children were removed. The Guardian reported that a 17-year-old unaccompanied child asylum seeker went missing from care after his in-person support was cancelled due to the legislation. Authorities stated he had not been accessing his support payments and there were serious concerns about his welfare.

This problem is not limited to the UK, as a recent report found that at least 18,000 unaccompanied child migrants have gone missing since 2018 after their arrival in European countries. The Lost in Europe project undertook research that found many European countries had child asylum systems that were not fit for purpose.


Accessing education as an unaccompanied child asylum seeker

Even the promise of an education and the hope that this brings with it is not a guarantee to unaccompanied asylum-seeking or migrant children. A Unicef report in 2018 found that no region in the UK was meeting its requirements to enrol asylum-seeking children into schools within their 20-day target.

Children with asylum seeker or refugee status under the age of 18 years have the same entitlements as British-born children, however, they may face additional obstacles, including language challenges, adapting to a new educational system, gaps in education history, social isolation, discrimination, or racism. 

Photo by Sharon McCutcheon from Pexels

Unicef report into educational opportunities for UAS children

Unicef commissioned a report into the educational journey for refugee and asylum-seeking children which was published in 2020 and aimed to identify the barriers faced by these children transitioning to further or higher education.

The report found some of the primary factors preventing young people with these immigrant backgrounds from progressing with their education included lack of support and encouragement, poor mental health or emotional wellbeing, and poverty and disadvantage.

Some of its findings make for difficult reading. Despite facing significant disadvantages, the issues involved in accessing further or higher education are often prohibitive. One person quoted in the report stated, “even if [young people] are ready and willing to go to college, literally a £1.50 bus fare is what stops them.”

Another major challenge cited by respondents found that stakeholders frequently gave inaccurate or incorrect information about accessing opportunities for further study at higher level. The report noted, “Half of key informants described how young people are often given wrong information about their eligibility to study at FE level, including from teachers, social workers and other professionals supporting them.” It was reported that there was a widespread lack of awareness of the rights of young people in accessing further education.

Another area that represents significant disadvantages for young people with asylum seeker backgrounds relates to how young people access courses. Young people cite the challenges of gathering documents required by admissions officers and institutions. For unaccompanied child asylum seekers, it is not unusual for them to be unable to gather the required documents from their home countries to prove their levels of educational attainment.


Supporting young people with asylum seeker backgrounds

The report lays out its findings on the different stakeholders and what is needed to improve the life outcomes of these children. These include interventions or policy changes from the Department for Education, the Home Office, higher and further education institutions, schools, voluntary organisations and private sector organisations. Some of the recommendations include:

  • The Home Office should provide clear guidance to educational institutes in relation to the Student Visa immigration permission and the rules around people with asylum seeker or refugee status
  • Further education institutes should exercise appropriate discretion and flexibility when dealing with students applying for courses or funding
  • Schools should establish effective pastoral and mental health systems to provide encouragement and tailored support for young people who wish to continue within education
Photo by Juan Serrano Arenas from Pexels

Organisations working to support asylum seeking young people

In Wales, there are several organisations working to provide support and care to refugee and asylum-seeking families and children. Many of these have an understanding of adverse childhood events and the impact these have on life outcomes.

Displaced People in Action (Wales) has been supporting refugees and asylum seekers in Wales since 2001. They provide a range of much-needed supports, with the ultimate mission of empowering these individuals to become more confident, more integrated, and self-sufficient.

Similarly, SNAP Cymru provides support to individuals who have faced discrimination in education. The work of these organisations in ensuring equal educational opportunities for all children in the UK, no matter their background, is vitally important.

Another recent and comprehensive report jointly published by the WHO, Wales Public Health, and the Cymru Well Wales Adverse Childhood Events Support Hub. The report highlights the potential for adverse childhood events (ACE) to occur throughout the migration journey. This can include pre-migration, on the migration journey, and post-migration. The report notes that, “By the time a displaced child arrives in a host country, he or she is likely to have experienced a multitude of ACEs due to their reasons for migrating and on their journeys to host countries.”

Despite the significant difficulties and often traumatic experiences of children with asylum seeker backgrounds, the report found that many children have a strong commitment to education and have ambitions to enter higher education. However, it is important to point out that not there is not always a negative relationship between war trauma and lower educational outcomes – in some instances, there can be insignificant or even positive effects on educational attainment.



It can be difficult to think about the struggles and challenges faced by asylum-seeking children, and it is impossible not to empathise with the hardships they have seen. Despite this, numerous studies[i] have shown that these groups of children are incredibly resilient, and if given opportunities, they show the capacity to embrace opportunities for growth and development.

Even for adults, there are extensive difficulties involved in getting immigration permissions to stay in the UK after arriving as an asylum seeker. The route towards citizenship is a complex path, and this is especially the case for children. Becoming a UK citizen brings with it many freedoms and can offer second chance at life for many children.

The value of education for improving life outcomes and improving mental health and wellbeing cannot be overstated. One 2005 study[ii] found that access to school and the opportunity to integrate well into a new educational system can actually mitigate the effects of trauma on young people with refugee backgrounds.

It is incumbent on all of us to continue to fight for equal educational access for all young people, and especially those who face extraordinary. disadvantages and obstacles.


Aileen Bowe is a writer and correspondent for the Immigration Advice Service, an organisation of immigration solicitors that provides legal aid to forcibly displaced persons.